Archive | Hobbs Act

Sunday, December 19th, 2010

Labor Pains

United States v. Markle, No. 06-1600-cr (2d Cir. December 14, 2010) (Jacobs, Pooler, Parker, CJJ)

In United States v. Enmons, 410 U.S. 396 (1973), the Supreme Court held that extortion liability under the Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1951, did not extend to violence in pursuit of “legitimate labor ends” that occurs during a lawful strike that is intended to achieve “legitimate collective-bargaining objectives.”

Defendant Markle was convicted of attempted Hobbs Act extortion after a violent confrontation arising from two unions’ turf war over the right to perform “fine sweep work” – the preparation of a floor surface before installing tile – at a construction site in upstate New York. He argued both in the district court and on appeal that Enmons precluded liability.

The circuit disagreed. The Enmons defense is not available if there is no legitimate labor union objective. Courts have generally limited the defense to the context …


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Categories: extortion, Hobbs Act, Uncategorized

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Sunday, September 23rd, 2007

Government Has No Evidence; Court Deems It Sufficient

United States v. Parkes, No. 05-1486-cr (2d Cir. August 15, 2007) (Jacobs, McLaughlin, Calabresi, CJJ).

In a sterling example of the alchemy of result-oriented jurisprudence, here the court finds sufficient evidence of an effect on interstate commerce, even though there was none.

Otis Parkes and two others planned and carried out 2003 robbery attempt in the apartment of a drug dealer. Their target was marijuana and marijuana proceeds that the dealer kept hidden in his closet. During the robbery, one of the co-conspirators shot and killed the drug dealer. Parkes went to trial on a Hobbs Act robbery conspiracy charge under 18 U.S.C. § 1951, along with other, related charges, including murder in furtherance of a crime of violence, under 18 U.S.C. § 924(j). He received a life sentence.

The government had taken the position (a typical SDNY overreach) that it did not have to prove any effect on interstate …


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Categories: Hobbs Act, interstate commerce, marijuana, sufficiency, Uncategorized

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